Expansion in A human economies, as represented by world gross domestic product (GDP), measured as the total monetary or market value of all the finished goods and services produced, and population B nature, as measured by the number of terrestrial animal species A redrawn from ourworldindata.org B redrawn from Benton (2016).

  Part of: Gilbert OM (2020) Natural reward drives the advancement of life. Rethinking Ecology 5: 1-35. https://doi.org/10.3897/rethinkingecology.5.58518