Different perspectives on the world resource supply. A Darwin’s first argument assumes population have hit the ultimate limit of food supply. The placement of a new wedge (species) requires that another be thrust out by extinction. B Darwin’s second argument assumes that the ultimate check of limited food is not reached because of various other checks to increase. C Malthus assumed that populations are continually in a state of effective resource limitation even though the food supply is increasing, because linear increases of food are quickly exhausted by the exponential population increases that they cause. D There is an unlimited abiotic resource supply, and the biotic “food supply” is increasing by innovations in primary production.

  Part of: Gilbert OM (2020) Natural reward drives the advancement of life. Rethinking Ecology 5: 1-35. https://doi.org/10.3897/rethinkingecology.5.58518